High responsive liquid crystal glasses lens, reduce eyestrain. alternate frame sequencing, alternate image, AI, alternating field, field sequential or eclipse method) is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. The Shutter : A fast shutter that will expose your film at around 1/60°s. 2013;156(1):195–201. The data is presented in Table 2. We calculated the mean value as the representative stereoacuity threshold of an individual in our test system. Testberichte finden Sie auf dem großen Testportalen: Testberichte.de; Test.de; YouTube; Außerdem finden Sie Blogs oder Ratgeberseiten die noch mehr Informationen bieten. 3D system: An active shutter 3D system is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. XpanD 3D is a manufacturer of shutter glasses, with over 1000 cinemas currently using XpanD glasses. 2012;32(5):383–9. Thus, we established a stereoacuity measurement system using 3D shutter glasses technology and designed different test targets in order to assess the effects of different factors on stereoacuity. ENJOY SUBSCRIBE NOW ! Full HD 3D Active Shutter-Brille f?r hochaufl?senden 3D-Genuss 3D Brille in kleinerer Gr? PubMed  Manufacturer changes lead to clinically important differences between two editions of the TNOstereotest. Rutstein RP, Cogen MS, Cotter SA, Daum KM, Mozlin RL, Ryan JM. Our findings show that both the fixed and variable distance 3D measurement systems are suitable for people with normal vision. The minimum corrected visual acuity of each eye was 0 logMAR. PubMed  volume 16, Article number: 45 (2016) For good "3D Shutter Glasses Hack Displays", make sure that the display supports 120Hz strobed (black frame insertion). SplitFish EyeFX 3D was a stereo 3D shutter glasses kit for the Sony PlayStation 2 released in 2005; it only supported standard-definition CRT TVs. Part of Subscribe Now for 3D and VR Vídeos - https://goo.gl/GnBwEv The best 3D Virtual Reality Vídeo Compilation (3D SBS) ! Although virtually all ordinary unmodified video and computer systems can be used to display 3D by adding a plug-in interface and active shutter glasses, disturbing levels of flicker or ghosting may be apparent with systems or displays not designed for such use. The refractive status of the left eyes were as follows: spherical error +0.50 DS to −4.00 DS (−1.50 ± 1.20 DS), cylinder error 0 to −1.75 DC (−0.92 ± 0.47 DC), spherical equivalent +0.50 DS to −4.00 DS (−1.59 ± 1.14 DS). Yang JW, Son MH, Yun IH. Photograph showing the 3D laptop (ASUS G750Y47JX) equipped with NVidia 3D Vision 2 Wireless Glasses Kit (Expressway Santa Clara, CA, USA). Br J Ophthalmol. The glasses are controlled by a timing signal that allows the glasses to alternately block one eye, and then the other, in synchronization with the refresh rate of the screen. Then the subject was moved further away from the screen, until they could not detect the stereo target on the middle line. Other units were available for field sequential VHS tapes including the Realeyes 3D. In 1982, Sega's arcade video game SubRoc-3D came with a special 3D eyepiece,[12] which was a viewer with spinning discs to alternate left and right images to the player's eye from a single monitor. 2014;57(1):12–22. Optom Vis Sci. Garnham L, Sloper JJ. The mean value, calculated from the mean distance between proximal and distal results, is the stereopsis of the subject. Jaschinski W, Schroth V. Ocular prevalence: difference between crossed and uncrossed disparities of stereo objects. The stereo targets are line 1–3, line 2–6, line 3–4, and line4-2. The micromirrors are organized in a so-called "offset-diamond pixel layout" of 960×1080 micromirrors, rotated 45 degrees, with their center points placed in the center of "black" squares on the checkerboard. Chen JY, Oden RV, Merritt JO. HW performed the statistical analysis of the data. Sensio released their own format which was higher quality than the High Quality Field Sequential (HQFS) DVDs. The system worked, but the expense of the installation and the unwieldiness of the viewers, which had to be supported on adjustable stands, confined its use to this one engagement. 3D system: An active shutter 3D system is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. Display Compatibility: DLP-Link 3D Projector. Chen Y, Sun Y, Yang L, Wu F, Jiang XC, Liu S, Jin H, Wu H. A new method to measure stereoacuity with 3D shutter glasses technology. The first grade, which had the largest range, was used as a teaching picture tool. PubMed  Borish's Clinical Refraction. 2011;95(8):1098–101. 2014;64:64–70. SSG-P5100GB – 3D-Brille – Active Shutter (Packung mit 2 ) SatMap Active ten The SatMap lively ten is a handheld GPS mapper and cycle computer system all in one particular device. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Again, LCD shutter glasses synchronized with the graphics chip complete the effect. 2013;57(5):486–92. Each subject recruited in our study completed 36 tests for the effect of different symbol sizes and shapes, and different types of disparity on stereoacuity. Am J Ophthalmol. 3D system: An active shutter 3D system is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. FOR SALE! Mit einer Auflösung von 1920×1080 Pixel bringt d 1979;56(6):350–5. Bin aber der Meinung das meine "BT Pro Scarlet Heaven aktive 3D Brille" aus dem gleichen Haus, mir klarere Bilder liefert. We tested stereoacuity using our system compared with the Fly Stereo Acuity Test, and the two tests showed reconciled results [33]. 2nd ed. Distance stereotest using a 3- dimensional monitor for adult subjects. An active shutter 3D system (a.k.a. Berkelman P, Miyasaka M, Bozlee S. Co-located haptic and 3D graphic interface for medical simulations. Projector Screen. http://www.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/amblyopia-ppp--september-2012, http://www.aoa.org/documents/optometrists/CPG-12.pdf, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-016-0223-3. An active shutter 3D system (a.k.a. Thus, the binocular disparities can be changed with a minimum step size of 10 arcsec in the fixed distance measurement system; in the variable distance system, as the disparity changes continuously with distance, the precision is only restricted by the accuracy of the distance measurement. Matsushita Electric (Panasonic) prototyped the "3D Full-HD Plasma Theater System" on CES 2008. Worin aber liegen die Vor- und Nachteile sowie Unterschiede der beiden dominierenden Technologien? 1:10. For crossed disparity, the symbol appeared to come out of the screen and closer to the subject, compared to the other symbols on the same line. LCD technology is not usually rated by frames per second but rather the time it takes to transition from one pixel color value to another pixel color value. Effect of age on adult stereoacuity as measured by different types of stereotest. Vorteile. Am J Ophthalmol. 3d-Shutter-Brillen Test. St. Louis: Butterworth–Heinemann Elsevier; 2006:1479-1508. Load = 30 hrs 3D use (rechargeable batteries). The DMD employs full-pixel wobulation to display the complete 1080p image as two half-resolution images in a fast sequence. A high refresh rate monitor of 120 Hz, equipped with a time controller, can display two different images alternately, synchronizing with the shutter glasses; therefore, each eye receives a different image. However, modern LC glasses generally work in higher refresh rates and eliminate this problem for most people. 133449699078 Utility of stereoscopic displays for indirect-vision driving and robot teleoperation. Han SB, Yang HK, Kim J, Hong K, Lee B, Hwang JM. This is done by turning off the backlight between refreshes, while waiting for the shutter glasses to switch eyes, and also for the LCD panel to finish pixel transitions. 133449739109 Care of the patient with Strabismus: Esotropia and Exotropia, American Optometric Association Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline; 2004. Since no significant differences among the different symbol sizes were obtained from the fixed distance test system, we chose 45 px which represented 0.2 logMAR at 4.1 m as the standard size of the test symbol. In addition, we would study the performance of subjects with abnormal stereoacuity such as those who have amblyopia under different circumstances. Die LCD-Shutter-Brille bietet ein helles und klares 3D-Erlebnis. Acer E4W DLP 3D shutter glasses white Specs DLP® Link Technology 3D Technology ( photosensor ) Reaction time : Switch : 0,6ms , off : 2,6m Viewing Angle ( Right / Left) : Up to 60 degrees Maximum distance: 8 meters Dimensions: 180 x 69 x 49 mmm Weight 32g Charging / running time : 2.5 hrs. In order to preserve the function of assessment of the visual acuity and reduce the horizontal disparity area difference, we designed another symbol, the tumbling "C". Jung JH, Yeom J, Hong J, Hong K, Min SW, Lee B. Samsung has developed active 3D glasses that are 2 ounces (57 g) and utilize lens and frame technology pioneered by Silhouette, who creates glasses for NASA.[18]. 34 g leichte Active Shutter Brillen aus Titan mit verstellbaren Ohrst?cken und 2 Nasenauflagen Nat?rliche Bilder in Full HD 3D zu Hause genie?en … HW, HJ and YS participated in the design of the study. This page was last edited on 4 September 2020, at 13:04. The fixed distance test system contained three grades of difficulty. Jpn J Ophthalmol. The most prominent example was the ELSA Revelator glasses, which worked exclusively in Nvidia cards through a proprietary interface based on VESA Stereo. Wie gewohnt von Amazon pünktlich geliefert.Die Brillen ausgepackt und geschaut ob alles wie beschrieben vorhanden ist.War alles da.Die Brille angeschaltet auf den Projektor abgestimmt und sie funktionieren,auch wenn in der Beschreibung … Chin J Lab Diagn. Evaluating stereoacuity with 3D shutter glasses technology. In this scenario, the amblyopic patient wears electronically programmable liquid crystal glasses or goggles for continuously for several hours during regular everyday activities. The advantages of this 3D system are precision and flexibility. With the development and advances in three-dimensional (3D) computer technology over recent years, researchers have designed new stereopsis tests with modern techniques [20–25]. Maeda M, Sato M, Ohmura T, Miyazaki Y, Wang AH, Awaya S. Binocular depth-from-motion in infantile and late-onset esotropia patients with poor stereopsis. The second grade consisted of four pages, each containing five lines that represented the following disparities: 80 to 100, 55 to 75, 30 to 50, and 5 to 25 px (range step 5 px), respectively. Article  Effect of fundamental depth resolution and cardboard effect to perceived depth resolution on multi-view display. The purpose of the pages was to find the range that contained the threshold disparity at which the subject just failed to identify the stereo target; the grades presented increasing levels of difficulty (higher precision required), such that the range was narrowed down to 1 px. The distance measurement error was not a significant influencing factor, i.e., if the right position was at 4.1 m, but the actual measured distance was at 3.1 m, the result error was only 3 arcsec, and when the actual measured distance was at 5.1 m, the result error was only 2 arcsec. In vision therapy of amblyopia and of intermittent central suppression, liquid crystal devices have been used for purposes of enhanced occlusion therapy. Wir klären im Test, wie die 3D-Brille funktioniert und ob das Spielen damit auch auf Dauer Spaß macht. An active shutter 3D system (a.k.a. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of different target shapes and … Stereopsis is important for carrying out specific tasks, including better motor control and quicker and more accurate cognitive information [2]. 3D monitor, which can measure 5000 to 20 arcsec of distance stereopsis. DLP 3D Brille Shutterbrille G1000 Versandkostenfreie Lieferung 30 Tage Rückgaberecht Zahlung bequem per Lastschrift Sie sind hier: > Suchergebnis für "1091324" Alle Preise inkl. The Viewfinder : Allow you to mount your lens and make a preview of your framings and focus. Leicht und bequem zu tragen: Die Active-Shutter-3D-Brille hat ein geringes Gewicht von nur 33 g; dadurch ist sie äußerst bequem zu verwenden. CAS  und versandkostenfrei Erleben Sie die Welt der 3D Projektion. If the data were not normally distributed, non- parametric tests were carried out. We used a square, rather than a circular, shaped target, due to the limitation of the display method on the computer where, for a high-resolution picture, the transition of the border of a circle cannot be as perfect as that of a square because of the pixel arrangement on the screen. However, efforts are being made to create a universal 3D shutter glass. With the development of information technology, 3D displays can be driven by computers. However, the results showed no significant difference between the tumbling "E" and the "□". 1999;40(12):3031–6. You can shop for monitors with blur reduction. The distance between the two objects represented the horizontal disparity. On the first cadence, only half of the original 1080p60 image is displayed – the pixels that correspond to the "black" squares of the checkerboard pattern. When the computer alternates between the two components of a 3D image, subjects will perceive a 3D image. Only eight 3D compatible games were ever released. Acer X1240 DLP 3D … 2011;19(21):20468–82. Einmal für das linke, und einmal für das rechte Auge. Korean J Ophthalmol. However, design improvements have resulted in newer models that are cheaper, lightweight, rechargeable and able to be worn over prescription lenses. PubMed  Daum KM, McCormack GI. No significant difference was found among the three symbols in our study. KFZ Auto Car Notebook Netzteil 80W f?r Acer ASUS Benq Dell Elitegroup Fujitsu Gericom HP IBM/Lenovo. It effectively compacts two L/R views into a single frame by using a checkerboard pattern, only requiring a standard 1080p60 resolution for stereoscopic transmission to the TV. Google Scholar. Liquid crystal displays have traditionally been slow to change from one polarization state to another. Larson WL. In 1922, the Teleview 3-D system was installed in a single theater in New York City. Therefore, to achieve compatibility across different brands, certain glasses have been developed to be able to adjust to a broad range of frequencies.[10][11]. 3d Shutterbrille Test - Betrachten Sie dem Sieger der Experten. Singman EL, Matta NS, Silbert DI, Tian J. A program written in C# produced all test targets. Each eye's glass contains a liquid crystal layer which has the property of becoming opaque when voltage is applied, being otherwise transparent. Springer Nature. Portable16:9 Projector Screen 60"/72"/84"/100". The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of different target shapes and sizes on stereoacuity, and it would be the condition to choose optimal targets according to different purposes with computer-aided 3D measurement. Sega released the SegaScope 3-D for the Master System in 1987, where it was the first known electronic device to use LCD Active Shutter glasses. Nvidias 3D Vision lässt Spiele aus der Zweidimensionalität normaler TFTs ausbrechen. 1:10. 2008;92(9):1186–9. To test the proximal stereoacuity, the subjects have to figure out the different target while moving towards the screen slowly without any psychological hint. Am J Ophthalmol. The first grade consisted of a single page that contained four lines, with disparities of 100, 75, 50, and 25 px (range step 25 px), respectively. alternate frame sequencing, alternate image, AI, alternating field, field sequential or eclipse method) is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. All symbols were set at 100 px apart, both horizontally and vertically. Wu, H., Jin, H., Sun, Y. et al. The depth of extrusion of the stereo target was determined by the degree of disparity. The core components of the active shutter 3D system are liquid crystal shutter glasses and a monitor with a high refresh rate. 2013;90:38–42. Wearing the device encourages or forces the patient to use both eyes alternatingly, similar to eye patching, but rapidly alternating in time. First, the subject was trained to identify the stereo target at a relatively near distance to the display. Modification of the titmus fly test to improve accuracy. Vision Res. The battery-powered active-shutter glasses with the type designation Samsung SSG-5100GB/XC 3D Active Shutter Brille, is light and elegant. Grabowska A. Lateral differences in the detection of stereoscopic depth. Arnoldi K, Frenkel A. Han J, Han SY, Lee SK, Lee JB, Han SH. No.20130206050SF. Selbstverständlich ist jeder 3d Shutter Brille jederzeit im Netz im Lager verfügbar und kann somit sofort bestellt werden. We also applied two methods to evaluate those factors: the fixed distance test and the variable distance test. Borish's Clinical Refraction. Stereopsis is quantified as the minimum geometric disparity that elicits the perception of depth termed stereoacuity, measured in seconds of arc (arcsec) [1]. Thus a 3D polarization technique was used to evaluate stereopsis, as described by Kim & Yang et al. Nvidia later bought the technology and used it in its stereo driver for Windows. 2015;10:e0116626. The disparity of the stereo target was 3 px in the top line, 2 px in the bottom line, and 1 px in the middle line. Changes in target shape and size and disparity types had no significant effect on stereoacuity. In 1999–2000, a number of companies created stereoscopic LC shutter glasses kits for the Windows PCs which worked with application and games written for Direct3D and OpenGL 3D graphics APIs. Active shutter 3D systems are used to present 3D films in some theaters, and they can be used to present 3D images on CRT, plasma, LCD, projectors and other types of video displays. Am J Ophthalmol. The new system transmits 1080i60 interlaced images for both right and left eyes, and the video is stored on 50-gigabyte Blu-ray using the MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 compression Multiview Video Coding extension. DLP 3D technology uses the SmoothPicture wobulation algorithm and relies on the properties of modern 1080p60 DMD imagers. However, the most precise distance determination is achieved through stereopsis, which is a specific type of binocular depth perception resulting from the horizontal separation of the two eyes and the subsequent ability to recognize retinal disparity [1]. Lee JY, Seo JY, Baek SU. Aktive 3D-Shutter-Brille; Passive 3D-Brille; Die aktive 3D-Brille muss für den Betrieb mit Strom versorgt werden. While regular LCD monitors run at 60 Hz, a 120 Hz monitor is required to use 3D Vision. It is difficult to avoid any psychological influences for subjects who are not well trained, and the subject can cheat easily if they want to gain a good score. Real stereopsis test using a three-dimensional display with Tridef software. American Academy of Ophthalmology Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel. Based on an easy first and difficult afterwards principle, we always tested using the fixed distance system first followed by the variable distance test system. Die günstigste Brille im Test, die Universal 3D Shutter Brille, fiel hier sofort durch, da ihre Gläser einfach zu klein sind. These traditional methods are widely used in clinical practice and experimental research. The M-3DI Standard, announced by Panasonic Corporation together with XPAND 3D in March 2011, aims to provide industry-wide compatibility and standardization of LC (Active) Shutter Glasses. It works by openly presenting the image intended for the left eye while blocking the right eye's view, then presenting the right-eye image while blocking the left eye, and repeating this so rapidly that the interruptions do not interfere with the perceived fusion of the two images into a single 3D image. 1). Wer Filme und Dokumentationen Zuhause in 3D schauen möchte, braucht nicht nur einen 3D-Fernseher. Thirty subjects with a visual acuity in each eye of at least 0 logMAR and a stereoacuity of at least 32 arcsec (as assessed in Fly Stereo Acuity Test) were recruited. MwSt. Woo GC, Sillanpaa V. Absolute stereoscopic thresholds as measured by crossed and uncrossed disparities. Holmes JM, Fawcett SL. Zwar genügt der Rahmen auch Ansprüchen von Brillenträgern, was den Platzbedarf angeht, aber bedingt durch die kleine Glasgröße ist das Sichtfeld nicht ausreichend. A few kits were made available to watch field sequential DVDs. California Privacy Statement, The USB-based Nvidia 3D Vision kit released in 2008 supports CRT monitors capable of 100, 110, or 120 Hz refresh rates, as well as 120 Hz LCD monitors. The principle made its public debut remarkably early. Changes in target shape and size and disparity types had no significant effect on stereoacuity and it would be helpful to choose symbols according to different purpose with computer-aided 3D measurement in future. Historic systems also used spinning discs, for example the Teleview system. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children. Am Orthopt J. Hong SW, Park SC. 2). 2). An investigation of the difference in stereoacuity between crossed and uncrossed disparities using Frisby and TNO tests. Optom Vis Sci. Binocul Vis Strabolog Q Simms Romano. Yonsei Med J. Reliability and validity of an automated computerized visual acuity and stereoacuity test in children using an interactive video game. CAS  Nintendo's Famicom also featured a similar Famicom 3D System, which was an LCD shutter headset, released in 1987 only for Japan. 2013;184:48–50. If the subject pointed out the stereo target on the second line, but not on the third line, the perceptible disparity for that subject was 34 px, indicating that their stereoacuity was 340 arcsec. Thus the larger the disparity, the more visible the stereo perception would be. Effects of interpupillary distance on stereoacuity: the Frisby Davis distance stereotest versus a 3-dimensional distance stereotest. Saxena R, Kakkar A, Menon V, Sharma P, Phuljhele S. Evaluation of factors influencing distance stereoacuity on Frisby-Davis Distance Test (FD2) in intermittent exotropia. Google Scholar. The aim of our test was to detect the minimum disparity at which the study participant could still see the stereo target. We examined the subjects using those 36 pattern sets randomly, with a 3-min break after every 12 tests. The Shapiro-Wilk test showed that no group of data satisfied normal distribution (P < 0.001), so we used median (M) and quartile range (QR) to describe the concentrations and discrete trends shown in Table 1. Samsung Electronics launched 3D ready PDP TVs in 2008, a "PAVV Cannes 450" in Korea and PNAx450 in the UK and the US. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. die Gläser zu klein. Illustrations of the stereoacuity test system. However, the disadvantages of the system are that subjects differ in their reactions, and therefore some people need to be familiarized with the system first, and the longitudinal space should be sufficiently long, especially for the variable distance test method. Westheimer G. Clinical evaluation of stereopsis. A total of 30 subjects, aged 20–28 (22.9 ± 2.4) years, were included, comprising 11 males and 19 females. Accessed 28 Sep 2012. We also applied two methods to evaluate those factors: the fixed distance test and the variable distance test. Google Scholar. Type: Active Shutter 3D. Vorab ist wichtig zu wissen: Eine 3D Brille - egal ob für Polarisation oder Shutter, also Kino, Heimkino und 3D-TV – hat grundsätzlich auf den 3D Tiefen Effekt selber keinerlei Einfluss! Wir zeigen Ihnen hier die derzeitigstenjetztigten 3d shutter brille Test Geschäft- Bestseller von Platz 1 bis auf Platz 30. Thus, we established a stereoacuity measurement system using 3D shutter glasses technology and designed different test targets in order to assess the effects of different factors on stereoacuity. The stereo targets are line 1–5, line 2–5, line 3–2, line4-3, and line 5–4. 3D-Brille GMYLE? In the 3D system, any forms of symbols, images, or texts can be applied or manipulated conveniently for different purposes or different groups of subjects. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The test stereo target in the middle line is no.5 with 1 pixels disparity. 1998;38(4):499–512. High frame rates (typically ~100fps) are required to produce seamless graphics, as the perceived frame rate will be half the actual rate (each eye sees only half the total number of frames). 2013;17(6):582–7. Article  Der Testsieger unter den besten 3D-Brillen des Jahres 2020 konnte als aktive Shutter-Brille im Test auf ganzer Linie überzeugen. LCDs that utilize a strobe backlight,[7] such as nVidia's LightBoost,[8] reduce crosstalk. 2 X 96-144HZ 3D Brille Aktive Shutter Work For DLP-LINK 3D Projector Acer Sharp - $51.80. Each subject completed 36 trials to investigate the effect of different symbol sizes and shapes, and disparity types on stereoacuity. Khairuddin HR, Malik AS, Mumtaz W, Kamel N, Xia L. Analysis of EEG signals regularity in adults during video game play in 2D and 3D. In our experience, this 3D technique was applied successfully, in theory and practice, to evaluate stereopsis in subjects with normal vision. Tejedor J, Ogallar C. Comparative efficacy of penalization methods in moderate to mild amblyopia. Normally, a 120 Hz refresh is displayed for a full 1/120 second (8.33 milliseconds) due to sample-and-hold, regardless of how quickly an LCD can complete pixel transitions. Beamer zeigt immer zwei unterschiedliche Bilder in abwechselnder Reihenfolge. The research protocol observed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the ethics committee of the Second Hospital of Jilin University (No.2015-45). XpanD universal 3D Shutter Brille - x103 by ... 5.0 out of 5 stars Test mit Projektor JVC-X3. Docooler G15-DLP 3D Aktive Shutter Brille 96-144Hz für LG/BENQ/ACER/Sharp DLP Verbindung 3D Projektor ☀3D aktiven Shutter-Brillen für 3D-Bilder und 3D-Visionen von DLP Link-3D-Projektoren sehen. Vision Res. van Doorn LL, Evans BJ, Edgar DF, Fortuin MF. 2). PubMed  In our study, all subjects completed the test smoothly, as they had already experienced the fixed distance system and thus understood the procedure correctly. The unit was 3D capable with the addition of the LaserActive 3D goggles (GOL-1) and the adapter (ADP-1). Am J Optom Physiol Opt. Woo and Sillanpaa found a lower threshold for cross disparities than for uncrossed disparities from stereoscopic tests of 30 subjects [34], and similar results were reported by Grabowska [35].