"[51] Martin Heidegger observed in his 1969 work Identity and Difference and in his personal Black Notebooks that Hegel's system in an important respect "consummates western philosophy"[52][53][54] by completing the idea of the logos, the self-grounding ground, in thinking through the identification of Being and beings, which is "the theme of logic", writing "[I]t is... incontestable that Hegel, faithful to tradition, sees the matter of thinking in beings as such and as a whole, in the movement of Being from its emptiness to its developed fullness. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. A primera vista, pueden parecer los menos adecuados. The philosopher Walter Kaufmann argued that there was sharp criticism of traditional Christianity in Hegel's early theological writings. 2017 Es lo más fuerte, profundo y real de lo existente. Los orientales no saben que el hombre como tal es libre, y, como no lo saben, no lo son. Hegel wrote that, ...profounder insight into the antinomial, or more truly into the dialectical nature of reason demonstrates any Concept [Begriff] whatsoever to be a unity of opposed elements [Momente] to which, therefore, the form of antinomial assertions could be given.[82]. In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic's chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia. those written before The Phenomenology of Spirit). Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, nemški filozof, * 27. avgust 1770, Stuttgart, vojvodina Württemberg, Nemčija, † 14. november 1831, Berlin.. Hegel je eden najbolj znanih nemških filozofov. mendeko alemaniar idealismo filosofikoaren burutzearen adierazgarri da Hegel. Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality". It is rational because the same, underlying, logical, developmental order underlies every domain of reality and self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness. Sin embargo, la experiencia del Terror en la época de Robespierre mostró a Hegel la tremenda dificultad de conjugar racionalmente la libertad del hombre y la organización político – social en un equilibrio en el que ninguno de los polos sea reducido y disuelto en el otro, pues en tal caso se acabaría con la libertad objetiva y con la vida del Espíritu. The eternity of spirit is here brought into consciousness, and is found in this reasoned knowledge, in this very separation, which has reached the infinitude of being-for-self, and which is no longer entangled in what is natural, contingent, and external. Es verdad que sin pasión no se hace nada serio en la historia, pero las pasiones de las grandes figuras de la historia son utilizadas como instrumentos del Espíritu del Mundo y muestran la astucia de la razón. What distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume, is that they regarded freedom or self-determination as real and having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity. (ed. It was perfectly legitimate in Hegel's eyes for a conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come and destroy that which was not fully realized. Aristóteles concebía la filosofía como la tendencia a un saber universal y necesario de la realidad de lo total. Es la etapa de la adolescencia de la humanidad. Estas condiciones son el derecho, la moralidad y la eticidad, de las cuales no vamos a hablar, que constituyen el espíritu objetivo. Veamos ahora tres puntos fundamentales de la estructura dialéctica del conocimiento: ), a practice that goes back to Plato's Sophist and Aristotle's Categories. [59]:2–3, 745 Hegel's mother, Maria Magdalena Louisa (née Fromm), was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court. Es un periodo que se prolonga desde la llegada del Cristianismo hasta la época actual de Hegel, se entiende. T. R. Vickroy and Susan E. Blow—who were both minor associates of the St. Louis Hegelians—independently of each other translated various chapters from Göschel's book into English, and had their translations published in. The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit. "On Hegel—A Study in Sorcery", in J. T. Fraser, F. Haber & G. Muller (eds. 105 likes. In Hegel's draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena, his notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of "Aether", from which he also derived the concepts of space and time, but in his later works (after Jena) he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether". [69][70] Later in the year, Hegel's first book The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy was completed. That history should resemble this dialectic indicated to Hegel that history is something rational. Hegel afirma incluso que sin pasión nada grande se ha realizado en el mundo. The structure of Hegel's Logic appears to exhibit self-similarity, with sub-sections, in their treatment of more specific subject matter, resembling the treatment of the whole. Hegel Quotes is an Excellent source of quotes to get you thinking by famous German thinker Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill them. Lo demás sería pensar que el capricho individual puede ser elevado al rango de libertad. Por eso los grandes individuos históricos han sido los creadores de los grandes Estados. English: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) was a German philosopher. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family. [65] In 1799, he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate",[66] unpublished during his lifetime. La Guerra de los Treinta Años había dejado a Alemania atrasada tanto política como económicamente. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. All greatly admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time. Hegel hjalp med at udvikle den tyske idealisme. [134] American neoconservative political theorist Francis Fukuyama's controversial book The End of History and the Last Man (1992) was heavily influenced by Kojève. Martin Heidegger (trans. [59][77] His last words are said to have been, "There was only one man who ever understood me, and even he didn't understand me. Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature, Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity", the "Concept" (or "Notion": Begriff), "Spirit" and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible, rather than remaining a brute "given". Frente a la supuesta autonomía de los hechos tal y como son dados en la experiencia, la estructura dialéctica de lo real acaba por mostrar que los hechos no son sino el resultado de un juego interno de relaciones que son las que, en última instancia, constituyen las cosas, a pesar de que aparentemente pueda parecer que los hechos tengan una independencia. [128] No Hegelians of the period ever referred to themselves as "Right Hegelians", which was a term of insult originated by David Strauss, a self-styled Left Hegelian. [37] Paul Tillich wrote that the historical dialectical thought of Hegel "has influenced world history more profoundly than any other structural analysis. Nevertheless, this interpretation survives in a number of scholarly works. In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. In addition to some articles published early in his career and during his Berlin period, Hegel published four major works during his lifetime: During the last ten years of his life, Hegel did not publish another book but thoroughly revised the Encyclopedia (second edition, 1827; third, 1830). It was spread by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus in accounts of Hegelian philosophy and, since then, the terms have been used for this type of framework. p. 1. Hegel sees relational and metaphysical unities between Jesus and God the Father. In Britain, the Hegelian British idealism school (members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley, Bernard Bosanquet and in the United States Josiah Royce) was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers Moore and Russell. By 14 November, Hegel was dead. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as independent realities, but instead the latter, in each case, is the self-transcending of the former. [44][45][46][47][48][49] Derrida wrote of Hegel in his work Of Grammatology that "he undoubtedly summed up the entire philosophy of the logos. Aunque muchas veces sus teorías discreparon de las de los mencionados pensadores, la influencia que ejercieron sobre él es evidente en sus escritos. Critiques of Hegel offered by the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a large part of the literature on and about Hegel. A number of other works on the philosophy of history, religion, aesthetics and the history of philosophy[122] were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering lectures; his lectures on aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of history and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from students' notes. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Stuttgart, 27 de agosto de 1770 - Berlín, 14 de noviembre de 1831) fue un filósofo y ensayista alemán, idealista objetivo, representante de la filosofía alemana. Indeed, "logic" in the field of nineteenth-century continental philosophy takes on a range of meanings from "metaphysics" to "theory of science," from "critical epistemology" to "first philosophy." Suele interpretarse como la negación de la afirmación anterior, ya que es esa contradicción el motor de la dialéctica. La historia universal es para Hegel un conjunto de fases o épocas históricas que se van sucediendo dialécticamente en un progresivo avance de la realización de la libertad a través del Estado, que no sólo no coarta la libertad de los individuos, sino que es la única forma de que los individuos vivan en libertad. [125], According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit, is that a philosopher should not "confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect". ), all the pure concepts of the understanding are immanently contained within the most abstract concept; the entire tree of the concepts of the pure understanding unfolds from a single concept the way a tree grows from a seed. Hegel, at this time, envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph, (a "man of letters") who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public; his own felt need to engage critically with the central ideas of Kantianism did not come until 1800. The direct and indirect influence of Kojève's lectures and writings (on The Phenomenology of Spirit in particular) mean that it is not possible to understand most French philosophers from Jean-Paul Sartre to Jacques Derrida without understanding Hegel. Hegel interpretará está disolución y reducción como la reconversión del objeto en el sujeto: será, pues, en el sujeto y como sujeto como se alcance la identidad absoluta. Tales hombres Alejandro Magno, Julio César, Napoleón no tenían necesariamente conciencia de que sus fines particulares eran sólo momentos del fin universal. La comprensión filosófica de la Historia se convierte para Hegel en una justificación del protagonismo de Dios en la Historia, en lo cual todo lo negativo aparece como algo subordinado al Todo, al plan total del Espíritu. En la reducción a la identidad absoluta en que se alcanza el verdadero y pleno conocimiento dialéctico tiene lugar la disolución de uno de los momentos estructurales del conocimiento en el otro. [96], "Mind" and "Spirit" are the common English translations of Hegel's use of the German "Geist", which combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost, or mind—with an intentional force. It was written in Hegel's hand, but may have been authored by Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person.[67]. En este sentido hay que entender la frase De la muerte surge la vida. "[57][58], Hegel was born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Representan la ancianidad de la humanidad. Ya habíamos hablado de que la filosofía de Hegel nacía unida a un marco histórico y social determinado, en el que Hegel denunciaba la falta de libertad del hombre. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - Enciclopedia de las Ciencias Filosóficas. Authors he read include the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment, such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. La síntesis se convierte inmediatamente en tesis del proceso siguientes, a la que se opondrá la antítesis para dar lugar nuevamente a una síntesis que será a la vez la tesis del proceso siguiente: todo está en constante progreso dialéctico. Allí concluyó la Fenomenología del espíritu 1807, una de sus obras más importantes. [140] The physicist and philosopher Ludwig Boltzmann also criticized the obscure complexity of Hegel's works, referring to Hegel's writing as an "unclear thoughtless flow of words". Sólo teniendo conciencia de la libertad se puede ser libre de los tres tipos de libertad que distingue Hegel --natural, de capricho y racional--, Hegel se refiere a la libertad racional. [101] For Hegel, Heraclitus's great achievements were to have understood the nature of the infinite, which for Hegel includes understanding the inherent contradictoriness and negativity of reality; and to have grasped that reality is becoming or process and that "being" and "nothingness" are empty abstractions. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel marcó un antes y un después dentro del pensamiento filosófico en Europa occidental y también en la Rusia del siglo XIX. [93] In his Phenomenology of Spirit and his Science of Logic, Hegel's concern with Kantian topics such as freedom and morality and with their ontological implications is pervasive. Falleció en la ciudad de Berlín (capital del Reino de Prusia) el 14 de noviembre de 1831 a los 61 años.[1]. El capricho individual no es libertad. La filosofía de la historia es la consideración reflexiva de la historia en cuanto que es el espíritu el que dirige esa historia. Suele interpretarse como la superación del conflicto, la negación de la negación anterior. It profoundly impacted many future philosophical schools, including those opposed to Hegel's specific dialectical idealism, such as existentialism, the historical materialism of Marx, historism and British Idealism. La libertad, que surgió con el Cristianismo, no llegó a tener inmediata expresión en las leyes y en las instituciones porque con el triunfo cristiano perduró la esclavitud. She died of bilious fever (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. [141] In a similar vein, Robert Pippin notes that some view Hegel as having "the ugliest prose style in the history of the German language". [107] He espouses that "God is not an abstraction but a concrete God [...] God, considered in terms of his eternal Idea, has to generate the Son, has to distinguish himself from himself; he is the process of differentiating, namely, love and Spirit". "Why did Hegel not become for the Protestant world something similar to what Thomas Aquinas was for Roman Catholicism?" Los dos momentos anteriores son a la vez eliminados y conservados, es decir, elevados a un plano superior. In 1802, Schelling and Hegel founded the journal Kritische Journal der Philosophie (Critical Journal of Philosophy) to which they contributed until the collaboration ended when Schelling left for Würzburg in 1803. La escisión entre lo finito y lo infinito mundo – Dios, Naturaleza – Espíritu. He is considered one of the fundamental figures of modern Western philosophy, with his influence extending to the entire range of contemporary philosophical issues, from aesthetics to ontology to politics, both in the analytic and continental tradition. Pero el carácter dialéctico de lo real no sólo significa que tenga una relación interna, sino, más profundamente aún, que cada cosa sólo es lo que es en un proceso continuado. Hegel recounted his impressions in a letter to his friend Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer: I saw the Emperor—this world-soul [Weltseele]—riding out of the city on reconnaissance. [108] Kaufmann wrote: Aside to his beloved Greeks, Hegel saw before him the example of Spinoza and, in his own time, the poetry of Goethe, Schiller, and Hölderlin, who also liked to speak of gods and the divine. [85] However, regardless of its status as a formal logic, Hegel clearly understood the course of his logic to be reflected in the course of history: ...different stages of the logical Idea assume the shape of successive systems, each based on a particular definition of the Absolute. Su obra, al igual que la de otros filósofos alemanes de la época como Immanuel Kant, ejercieron un gran peso en el pensamiento, tanto en el país germánico como en el resto de Europa, allá por el siglo XVIII y XIX. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Hänen ajatuksillaan oli suuri vaikutus marxismiin. This mind comprehends all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. Lo que se ha llamado síntesis el aspecto o momento especulativo o positivo – racional. Sin embargo, al parecer de este filósofo, está realización y armonía resulta deficiente y meramente formal, ya que el individuo todavía no ha descubierto la conciencia de su propia individualidad y de su libertad. Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics."[123]. (Karl Barth. Este es algo así como el material con el que se construye la historia y llega al fin último del Espíritu. Hay que interpretar la historia desde la racionalidad; hay que atender a los hechos para discernir el proceso racional que se da en la historia. Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being, but more remains in the substrate of non-being, which is identical to pure or unlimited thought. To his chagrin, Fries was, in the same year, made Ordinary Professor (salaried).[59]:224–25. [59]:337, In 1811, Hegel married Marie Helena Susanna von Tucher (1791–1855), the eldest daughter of a Senator. [76] In August 1831, a cholera epidemic reached Berlin and Hegel left the city, taking up lodgings in Kreuzberg. La polis griega aparece como un modelo frente a la situación de Alemania. Ha sido necesario un largo proceso de desarrollo de los pueblos antes del reconocimiento explícito de la libertad. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle". [147], Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.e. Además, el campesinado aún era muy numeroso, la industrialización era mínima y carecía de una clase media poderosa que pudiese transformar ese estado de cosas. La presente traducción, realizada sobre la edición histórico-crítica de Bonsiepen y Heede publicada en 1980 en Hamburgo por la editorial Felix Meiner como vol. La institución que asegura la consecución del fin al que se dirige la historia es el Estado. Hegel pretende la unidad interna y la conexión entre Naturaleza y Espíritu, de modo que pueda elaborarse una teoría unitaria, total y cerrada sobre la realidad en su totalidad. [146], Isaiah Berlin listed Hegel as one of the six architects of modern authoritarianism who undermined liberal democracy, along with Rousseau, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Fichte, Saint-Simon and Joseph de Maistre. La distinción entre el ser y el deber ser. [30][31], Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism,[32] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. His studies at the Gymnasium concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") "Der verkümmerte Zustand der Künste und Wissenschaften unter den Türken" ("The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey").[59]:16[61]. El Estado representa para Hegel la única realidad capaz de lograr y realizar plenamente la libertad. Según sus propias palabras, lo verdadero es el todo. "[90] Hegel went so far as to include the concept of life as a category in his Science of Logic, likely inspired by Aristotle's emphasis on teleology, as well as Kant's treatment of Naturzweck (natural purposiveness) in the Critique of Judgment. El proceso encaminado a superar la diferencia entre objeto y sujeto tiende a la identidad de ambos. As the logical Idea is seen to unfold itself in a process from the abstract to the concrete, so in the history of philosophy the earliest systems are the most abstract, and thus at the same time the poorest...[86]. Para Hegel, esa meta, es el Espíritu, y e fin que persigue el Espíritu es la conquista de la libertad. Este momento negativo es lo que hace dinamizar la realidad. [143] Karl Popper quoted Schopenhauer as stating, "Should you ever intend to dull the wits of a young man and to incapacitate his brains for any kind of thought whatever, then you cannot do better than give Hegel to read...A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel. Si la historia ha transcurrido racionalmente, esto significa que ha transcurrido de acuerdo con unas categorías o leyes, y es necesario que el historiador se enfrente a la historia con esas armas para poder explicar de forma convincente y racional la historia. Hay que contemplar los hechos, pero interpretándolos a la luz del espíritu tal como se desenvuelve en el tiempo. [97], Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge, mind, and reality was identity in difference; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. (Hegel, "How the Ordinary Human Understanding Takes Philosophy as displayed in the works of Mr. Krug", Jon Bartley Stewart. Libros Ver todo. Hegel rendered these dualities intelligible by (ultimately) his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic". Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Stuttgart, actual Alemania, 1770 - Berlín, 1831): Filósofo alemán. In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place. Durante los años que residió en Nuremberg, Hegel conoció y contrajo matrimonio con Marie von Tucher, de quien tuvo tres hijos: una niña que murió al poco de nacer y dos varones Karl e Immanuel. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel skabte en filosofisk “før og efter”-tanke i Vesteuropa og det 19. århundrede Rusland.Han var en loyal beundrer af Plato, Descartes og Kant. Hemos visto que para Hegel la dialéctica no se limita a ser un método del conocimiento, sino que es algo más. Doctrines of concept address the systematic, hierarchical relations of the most general classes of things. [130] Since the fall of the Soviet Union, a new wave of Hegel scholarship has arisen in the West without the preconceptions of the prior schools of thought. [80], The Science of Logic (which the latter Hegel considered central to his philosophy) can be considered a notable contribution to the research program of category metaphysics in its post-Kantian form, taking up the project that Kant suggested is necessary but did not himself pursue: "to take note of and, as far as possible, completely catalog" the derivative concepts of the pure understanding and "completely illustrate its family tree. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) ek German philosopher the, jiske janam Stuttgart, Württemberg, Germany me hua tha. En relación con esto, es muy importante el concepto de Volkgeist espíritu del pueblo. The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" (section 258). Se inicia la conciencia de la libertad, y por ello se lucha por la libertad. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27 Augustus 1770 – 14 November 1831) was 'n Duitse filosoof.Hy word as 'n belangrike figuur in die Duitse idealisme beskou. [124] After less than a generation, Hegel's philosophy was banned by the Prussian right-wing and was firmly rejected by the left-wing in multiple official writings. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Furthermore, in Hegel's language the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality, by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface, what he called Aufhebung, is only preliminary to the "speculative" (and not "synthesizing") aspect or "moment", which grasps the unity of these opposites or contradiction. As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin in the mistaken belief that the epidemic had largely subsided. Kant derived his own table of categories (the twelve pure or "ancestral" concepts of the understanding that structure all experience irrespective of content) from a standard term-logical table of judgments, noting also that, ...the true ancestral concepts...also have their equally pure derivative concepts, which could by no means be passed over in a complete system of transcendental philosophy, but with the mere mention of which I can be satisfied in a merely critical essay. For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers to the nous of Anaxagoras, although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God. He had no diarrhoea and no swelling. There was an epidemic of it and Hegel was worried about being infected. Karen Ng writes that "there is a central, recurring rhetorical device that Hegel returns to again and again throughout his philosophical system: that of describing the activity of reason and thought in terms of the dynamic activity and development of organic life. Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology. En 1801 se trasladó a la Universidad de Jena, donde estudió, escribió y logró un puesto como profesor. 2018 Principios de la filosofía del derecho. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. La identidad será una identidad en y del sujeto. [62] Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. En ese sentido, en cuanto expresión de la filosofía de Hegel, dialéctica significa la radical oposición de Hegel a toda interpretación fragmentaria de la realidad y del conocimiento.